'Ebola' was in news now, a disease which continues to spread in several West African countries. Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is the human disease caused by the Ebola virus. The largest outbreak to date is the ongoing 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak, which is affecting Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and likely Nigeria. As of August 2014 more than 1600 cases have been identified. Efforts are ongoing to develop a vaccine; however, none yet exists. Here are the things related to Ebola virus from competitive Exams point of view, which was shared by one of our friend who doesn't like to be named. We thank him on behalf of our team.
Introduction on Ebola Virus?
* Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. It affects central nervous system.
* Ebola first appeared in 1976 in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, in Nzara, Sudan, and in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The latter was in a village situated near the Ebola River, from which the disease takes its name.
* The natural host of the Ebola virus is Fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family.
* Ebola is introduced into the human population through close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected animals.
* Spreads from person to person on contact with blood or bodily fluids of infected person.
* Burial ceremonies in which mourners have direct contact with the body of the deceased person can also play a role in the transmission of Ebola.
* Health-care workers have frequently been infected. Family members are at risk.
* Incubation period: 2 to 21 days after infection.
Signs and symptoms
* Fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, impaired kidney and liver function, and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding.
Vaccine and treatment
* No licensed vaccine for EVD is available. No specific treatments beyond managing symptoms.
Prevention and control
* Controlling Reston ebola virus in domestic animals.
* Reducing the risk of Ebola infection in people.
* Controlling infection in health-care settings.
Why is it in news?
* Recent outbreak in 3 West African countries and their capitals are affected.
* Sierra Leone (Freetown), Liberia (Monrovia) and Guinea (Conakry).
* High alert after a US doctor working in Liberia contracted the virus and died in Lagos, Nigeria.